Neurotransmitters and 2nd messengers
This list is primarily from Table 5.1 of Dowling's Retina.
- Amino Acids
- GABA (Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid)
- L-Glutamate (Kainate, Quisqualate, AMPA and NMDA receptors)
- Acetylcholine (ACh; cholinergic)
- Serotonin (also called 5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT)
- Peptides - typically modulate response rather than create one.
2nd messengers and other intra-neural chemicals
Other Relevant Web Sources: DrugTexT's Important Neurotransmitters |
Klotho's Chemical Compounds |
SmartBasics' Amino Acids
- adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate (cyclic amp or cAMP)
- cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA or A-kinase)
- guanosine triphosphate (GTP)
- G-Proteins (GTP-binding regulatory proteins) - more than 16
Hille, page 173 - "In the resting state, G proteins carry a bound GDP and diffuse about in the plane of the membrane. If they encounter an agonist-occupied receptor, the GDP is liberated, a GTP from the cytoplasm takes its place, and the G protein is believed to split into two mobile parts, G_alpha-GTP and G_alpha_gama. These are the activated forms of the G protein." If G_alpha-GTP encounters adenylyl cyclase int he membrane, cAMP synthesis is stimulated so long as they remain associated. Eventually however the activated G protein inactivates itself, as the G protein has a slow GTPase activity that cleaves its own bound GTP to GDP. The resulting G_alpha-GDP is inactive, and cAMP synthesis stops."
- G_s - G stimulatory
- G_i - G inhibitory
- G_o - G other
- G_p - G proteins
- cyclic GMP (cGMP)
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